Threat Assessment Community of Practice (NABITA-TA)

Government Publications


Mass Attacks in Public Spaces
This report is NTAC’s second analysis of mass attacks that were carried out in public spaces. View.

Mass Violence in America
The National Council for Behavioral
Health Medical Director Institute
convened an expert panel to analyze
the root causes of mass violence. View.

Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model
This operational guide provides direction on how to prevent targeted school violence. View.


Pre-Attack Behaviors of Active Shooters
By articulating the concrete, observable
pre-attack behaviors of many active shooters,
the FBI hopes to make these warning signs more visible and easily identifiable. View.

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Making Prevention a Reality
This report is based on a symposium of researchers,
mental health experts, and law enforcement
officials addressing effective prevention
of the active shooter phenomenon. View.
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Mass Victimization: Promising
Avenues for Prevention
This document identifies strategies that contribute to preventing, not
predicting, targeted violence resulting
in mass casualty events. View.

Protective Intelligence Threat
Assessment Investigations
This guide describes an approach to
threat assessment that can be of assistance to law enforcement and security with protective
intelligence duties. View.
Indicators of School Crime and Safety
This report covers victimization,
teacher injury, bullying and electronic bullying,
school conditions, fights, weapons, availability and student use of drugs and alcohol, student perceptions of personal safety
at school, and criminal incidents at
postsecondary institutions.  View.

Threat Assessment in Schools
This is a guide for managing
threatening situations in the
school setting and for creating
safer school climates by setting
a process for identifying, assessing, and managing students who
may pose a threat. View.


Report on the Arapahoe High School Shooting
The purpose of this report was to understand the school’s threat and risk assessment procedures and responses, and lessons learned to improve youth violence prevention across the U.S. View.

Threat and Violence Risk Assessment Tools

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MOSAIC Threat Assessment Systems
MOSAIC is an error avoidance method,
a computer-assisted method for conducting
comprehensive assessments View.

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The WAVR-21 – Workplace Assessment
of Violence Risk – is a 21-item coded
instrument for the structured
assessment of workplace and campus
targeted violence risk. 


FAVT: Firestone Assessment of
Violent Thoughts
Assesses the underlying thoughts
that predispose violent behavior
in adults ages 18 to 75 years (FAVT)
and adolescents ages 11 to
18 years (FAVT-A).  

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The Structured Interview for Violence
Risk Assessment (SIVRA-35) is a
thirty-five-item inventory used to
assist Behavioral Intervention Team
members and clinical staff in conducting
a more thorough and research-based
violence risk assessment. 


Harm to Others: The Assessment
and Treatment of Dangerousness
In clinical settings, the PCL-R is
used for psycho-diagnostic purposes.

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Version 3 of the HCR-20 is the latest
version of a comprehensive set of
professional guidelines for
violence risk assessment and
management based on the Structured
Professional Judgement (SPJ) model.

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ISP List
The ISP List is a database of
Internet service and other online
content providers that will help
you get the information you need
for your case. View.

 Threat Assessment Books

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The Concept of Leakage in
Threat Assessment
This guide summarizes the existing
literature on campus teams and
suggests some of the key issues that
should be considered when creating
or managing a campus team. View.


Threat Assessment: A Risk
Management Approach
Detailed “how to’s” of threat
assessment—from the initial
contact to the sharing of results.


The Handbook for Campus
Threat Assessment & Management Teams

The handbook presents the
guiding principles and key
practices of campus threat
assessment and management.  View.


Ending Campus Violence:
New Approaches to Prevention
This book will be useful for student
affairs professionals as well as college
counselors, psychologists, social workers
interested in the practical management
of aggression and violence on a college
campus. View.


Harm to Others: The Assessment
and Treatment of Dangerousness
This book offers students and
clinicians an effective way to increase
their knowledge of and training in
violence risk and threat assessment,
while providing a comprehensive
examination of current treatment
approaches. View.


Dangerous Instincts: Use an FBI
Profiler’s Tactics to Avoid Unsafe Situations
Whether you are opening the door
to a stranger or meeting a date you
connected with online, you need to
know how to protect yourself from
harm-physical, financial, legal,
and professional. View.


Why Kids Kill: Inside the
Minds of School Shooters
In this breakthrough analysis,
Dr. Peter Langman presents the
psychological causes of school shootings
and offers unprecedented insight into
why certain teens exhibit the potential
to kill. 


The Like Switch
From a former FBI Special Agent
specializing in behavior analysis and
recruiting spies comes a handbook
filled with his proven strategies on
how to instantly read people and
influence how they perceive you,
so you can easily turn on the
like switch. View.


Research Articles

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The Concept of Leakage
in Threat Assessment
This article defines leakage and
explains how it can help in the
prevention of mass casualty
attacks. View.

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The Role of Warning Behaviors
in Threat Assessment
The concept of warning behaviors
offers an additional perspective
in threat assessment.  This paper
offers an explanation and suggested
typology. View.


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The Final Report and Findings
of the Safe School Initiative
This is the culmination of an
extensive examination of 37 incidents
of targeted school violence that
occurred in the United States from
December 1974 through May 2000. View.

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An Exploration of the Risk, Protective,
and Mobilization Factors to Violent
Extremism in College Populations
This article examines risk factors for
violent extremism, mobilization factors
contributing to violent actions, and protective
factors that reduce the potential for violence. View.

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Rampage School Shooters: A Typology
This article examines the cases
of ten rampage school shooters
in an effort to find out not only
how they are alike, but also how they differ. View.

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Debunking the Myth: Mental
Illness and Mass Shootings
There is a pervasive assumption
that mental illness equates to
dangerousness and violence as
it relates to mass shootings. The
researchers examine the assumption. View.

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Using Suspicious Activity
Reporting and Threat Assessments to
Enhance School Safety
Informed, alert communities play a
critical role in keeping the nation safe.
This article explains the importance of
encouraging reporting of suspicious activity. View.

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Shooting Alone: The Pre-Attack
Experiences and Behaviors of U.S.
Solo Mass Murderers
This article examines various properties
of 115 mass shooters in the U.S. between
1990 and 2014 in search of commonalities. View.

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Threat Assessment: Defining an
Approach for Evaluating Risk
of Targeted Violence
This paper attempts to define an
approach developed by the Secret
Service and apply it within the
existing professional/scientific
literature on risk assessment. View.

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Assessing Threat in Written
Communications, Social Media,
and Creative Writing
This article provides a framework for
reviewing and understanding written
messages and assessing them for
potential lethality and dangerousness. View.

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Violence Risk Assessment:
Getting Specific About Being Dynamic
In this article, the authors differentiate
risk status from risk state, analyze the
relevance of contemporary risk assessment
measures for capturing dynamic risk, and
distill dynamic risk factors from the literature. View.

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The Contagion Effect as it
Relates to Public Mass Shootings
and Suicides
The authors provide relevant research
and advice to assist Behavioral Intervention
Teams toward reducing the risk of
copycat public mass shootings and suicides. View.

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The Warning Behaviors of
Anders Breivik
This case study looks at Anders Breivik’s
activities and mental state through the lens
of eight warning behaviors that may
indicate proximal and dynamic patterns
of risk for targeted violence: pathway. View.